Vasi185h

report

METHODOLOGY

1) National reports based on pre-determined template

2) Questionnaires – field survey

3) Focus groups

1) National reports based on pre-determined template:

  • Policies related to sports

  • Government’s role

  • Sports in each country and field

  • Level of cultural diversity

  • Coach/trainers’ qualifications

  • Competitive vs non-competitive sports

  • Definitions

  • Transitional stages for adolescent girls

  • Reasons for quitting sports

  • Best practices

2) Questionnaire – field survey

  • Literature review, themes presented

  • Use of existing scales for measurement, e.g. items from PACES (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale), subscale from the Body Image Scale, MSEI (Minor Sport Enjoyment Inventory), Social Support Scale

  • Sociodemographics/control variables: place of living, frequency of sports engagement, sports practiced, parents’ educational background

  • Field: schools and sports clubs/associations

DATA ANALYSIS

• Data entry: Microsoft Excel>SPSS software

• Data coding and cleaning

• Multivariate Statistics:

     >Frequencies
     >Factor Analysis
     >ANOVA and Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Tests

     >Inferential Statistics

  • Regression Analysis 
  • Hierarchical Regression Analysis
 
 

MAIN OUTPUTS

  • Frequencies for all sociodemographic variables

  • Identification of motives, barriers, social, support and satisfaction factors

  • Associations

  • Differences among countries, religions, frequency of sports engagement, participation in competitive sports

  • Focus groups’ guideline

MAIN FINDINGS

Exploratory Factor Analysis

  • Motives
  • Barriers
  • SocialSupport
  • Exercise Enjoyment
  • FunctionalSatisfaction
  • Sociodemographicvariables

 

PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

Turkey

488

21,1

21,1

21,1

UK

195

8,4

8,4

29,5

Italy

983

42,5

42,5

72,0

Sweden

171

7,4

7,4

79,4

Czech Rep.

146

6,3

6,3

85,7

Cyprus

216

9,3

9,3

95,1

Portugal

114

4,9

4,9

100,0

Total

2313

100,0

100,0

 
 

IN RANK OF IMPORTANCE

In rank of importance

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Mean – Motive: Team

2313

4,07

,809

Mean – Motive: Fitness and Health

2313

4,05

,731

Mean – Motive: Mood Enhancement

2312

4,01

,873

Mean – Motive: Peer Acceptance

2313

3,44

,825

Mean – Motive: Competition

2313

3,31

,902

Mean – Motive: Aesthetic

2313

3,29

,970

Mean – Motive: Significant Others

2313

3,07

1,170

COUNTRY DIFFERNCES

  • Competition: not a motive for Cyprus; a moderate one for Italy, the Czech Republic, Sweden, and the UK; a strong one for Turkey and Portugal.

  • Fitness and Health: an important motive for Cyprus, Sweden, and Portugal; a moderate one for UK and Turkey; a not so powerful one for the Czech Republic and Italy.

 

  • Team: a motivator for all countries, but highly important for Portugal and Sweden

  • Mood Enhancement: a motivator for all, but highly important for Portugal, Turkey, Sweden, and Cyprus

  • Peer Acceptance: means ranging from M=3,25 to M=3.92

  • Significant Others: low means for Cyprus, Sweden, the Czech

    Republic and Italy; high for the UK and Turkey

  • Aesthetic: unimportant for Sweden; important for the Czech Republic; other countries in the middle

ENGAGEMENT DIFFERNCES

Differences exist in all 7 motives:

respondents who engage in physical activities/sports more than 4 times per week attribute significantly more importance on 5 motivation factors (Competition, Fitness and Health, Team, Mood Enhancement, and Peer Acceptance), and significantly less importance on the remaining 2 factors (Significant Others and Aesthetic Factor).

 

COMPETITIVE VS NON-COMPETITIVE

Significant differences were revealed in 5 motive factors (Competition, Fitness and Health, Team, Mood Enhancement, Peer Acceptance), with respondents participating in out-of-school Sport Competitions / Competitive Sports attributing more importance.

SOCIAL SUPPORT

 

Factor Items

Loading

Eigenvalues

Percentage of explained variance

Reliability Alpha (Cronbach)

Factor 1: Support by Friends and Peers

 

3,159

39,490

.720

My friends/closest peers engage in physical activities/sports:

.741

     

My friends/closest peers exercise with me:

.787

     

My friends/closest peers encourage me to exercise:

.761

     

Factor 2: Parents’ Support

 

1,243

15,533

.724

One or both of my parents engage in physical activities/sports:

.791

     

One or both of my parents exercise with me:

.803

     

One or both of my parents watch me playing sports:

.631

     

One or both of my parents encourage me to do sports because it is good for health:

.477

     

One or both of my parents provide transportation/drive me to sports facilities:

.461

     

Total Percentage of Explained Variance

   

55,023

 
 

MEANS AND COUNTRY DIFFERENCES

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Mean - Support Friends

2312

1

5

3,07

1,009

Mean – Parents’ Support

2312

1

5

2,79

,891

Valid N (listwise)

2311

       

Source

D. F.

Sum of squares

Mean of squares

F Ratio

F Probab. (Sig.)

Mean

Post Hoc Analysis (Tukey HSD)

Support by Friends and Peers

       

  CY IT CZ SE UK PT TR

Between Groups

6

216,645

36,107

50,049

.000

CY: 3.35

        *    *    *     *     *     *

Within Groups

2306

1663,654

,721

   

IT: 2.87

   *          *   *            *

Total

2312

1880,298

     

CZ: 3.19

          *        *

           

SE: 3.79

   *     *    *        *      *

           

UK: 3.04

   *                *           *

           

PT: 3.46

   *     *

           

TR: 2.99

   *                 *          *

Parents’ Support

         

Between Groups

6

56,240

9,373

18,355

.000

CY: 2.89

                       *                  *

Within Groups

2306

1177,622

,511

   

IT: 2.78

                       *                  *

Total

2312

1233,862

     

CZ: 2.80

                       *                  *

           

SE: 3.46

   *   *    *                *    *    *

           

UK: 2.77

                       *                  *

           

PT: 2.85

                       *                  *

           

TR: 2.49

   *   *    *                *    *    *

PARENTS'EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

  • the higher the educational background of the Father, the higher the support towards physical Activity/Sport participation the respondent receives.

  • the higher the educational background of the Mother, the higher the support towards physical Activity/Sport participation the individual receives.

RELIGION DIFFERENCES

The meano fall religions is quite high, suggesting that the majority of participants overall enjoy exercising and have positive attitudes towards sports and physical activity.

There are a few statistically significant differences, however. Protestants rank first, , followed by Orthodox and Muslims, while the Catholics report lower levels of Exercise Enjoyment and Attitudes.

ENGAGEMENT DIFFERENCES

  • Significant Differences: Those who practice more than 4 times per week exhibit higher levels of Functional Satisfaction.
  • A significant positive relationship was found between Frequency Engagement and Functional Satisfaction (regression analysis)

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